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VIOLENCE
  • Homicides in 2019: 36,476 (INEGI).

  • Homicides between January and June of 2020: 17,123 (INEGI)

  • Women represent around 10.6% of homicide victims (INEGI)

  • 65% of homicide victims are between 20 and 45 years old; 29% are between 20 and 30.

  • The percentage of homicides that are attributable to organized crime is unclear. Estimates range between approximately 44% and 80% for 2019.

  • Missing people between March 15, 1964 and December 31, 2020: 82,647 (Comisión Nacional de Búsqueda).

  • The 5 states that report the most bodies found in clandestine graves represent 79.5% of the total of bodies found the clandestine graves between December 2018 and December 2020 (Comisión Nacional de Búsqueda)

  • Missing people between 1964 and January 2019: 61,637 (Comisión Nacional de Búsqueda). 74% are men; 25.69 are women; and 0.31% are undetermined. 53% of missing individuals are between the ages 15 to 35 years old.

  • DataCivica statistics suggest 31.5% of disappearances are men between the ages of 18 and 30.

  • A study examining 729 disappearances in Coahuila between 2001 and 2017 found that state agents were responsible for a third of disappearances, with 54% of those cases involving municipal police (state forces were responsible for a quarter and federal forces were responsible for 13%). The same study also found that people between the ages of 17 and 33 years are at higher risk, as well as those working in the transportation sector.

  • Unidentified persons: 26,000

  • 349,600 internally displaced by violence as of June 2020 (IDMC). Estimated 1.65 million displaced between 2006 and 2011.

  • 11,700 internally displaced by violence between January 2019 and June 2020 (IDMC)

  • In 2018, 13 incidents of displacement were caused by direct attacks on the civilian population by armed groups. In 2019, 28 internal displacement incidents were reported, along with 8,664 internally displaced people. Seven of these displacement incidents were caused by violent attacks towards civilians by armed groups.

  • In 2018, 6,156 people were displaced by armed groups, 5,335 were displaced by political violence, social conflict, and territorial conflict In 2019, 6,925 people were displaced by violence related to criminal organizations, and 1,658 by political violence, social conflict, and territorial conflict.

  • From the beginning of the election cycle in September 2020 up to January 2021, 64 politicians were assassinated.

  • 29.2% of households reported being victims of crime in 2019 (excludes homicides).

  • In March 2020, 48.7% of Mexican citizens reported feeling unsafe in their neighborhood [colonia] compared to 44% in 2013. Notably, there is a clear gender disparity. In 2020, 52.2% of women felt unsafe in their neighborhood, compared to 44.5% of men. This disparity has also exacerbated over time. In 2013, 46.7% of women felt unsafe in their neighborhood, compared to 41% of men.

 
COST OF VIOLENCE
  • Cost of violence in 2019, according to Mexico Peace Index: $238 Billion (US dollars); equivalent to 21.3% of GDP.

  • Cost of criminality and insecurity per household in 2019 according to INEGI: 1.53 percent of the GDP.

 
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
  • 89.6% of intentional homicides cases end in impunity, (Impunidad Cero).

  • Percentage of unreported crimes (cifra negra) in 2019: 92.4%, according to INEGI.

  • Lowest: Colima, 84.5%

  • Highest: Guerrero 96.1%

  • In 2019, an arrest was made in only 12.8% of all cases, with only 0.11% of cases going to trial (3.4% of cases were linked to any judicial process).

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FIREARMS
  • Small Arms Survey estimates 16,809,000 civilian-held guns in Mexico (12.9 per 100,000). An additional 1,486,285 weapons are held by law enforcement and military.

  • 7,241 arms were seized in Mexico in 2017 of which:

23 machine guns

2,834 rifles

2,304 pistols

379 revolvers

317 shotguns

69 submachine guns

423 other

892 unknown

  • Years with available data show 2011 had the largest number of arms seizures with a total of 40,996.

  • An estimated 70% of arms come from the U.S.

 
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JOURNALISM
  • From 2000 to 2020, 137 journalists have been killed in Mexico, of which 126 were men and 11 were women.

  • Data shows 42% of attacks come from officials/authorities. Only 5% can be identified as coming from organized crime.

  • 386 journalists enrolled in protection mechanism, reported on December 31st, 2020.

 
SECURITY FORCES
  • Security budget for 2021: approximately 10.8 billion USD.

  • 214,157 active members of the Army and Air Force (SEDENA) in 2020.

  • 61,242 active members of the Navy (SEMAR) in 2020.

  • 98,282 active members of the Guardia Nacional as of 2020.

  • Approximately 330,000 police officers between municipal, state, and federal police.

  • 524 police officers were murdered and 702 died of COVID-19 in 2020.

  • SEDENA has experienced 543 losses between 2006 and 2018; SEMAR had 54 losses between 2006-2012 and 152 between 2012-2018. 44% of soldiers killed were lowest rank; 68% were lowest two ranks (soldier and corporal).

  • 586 federal policeofficers were killed between 2006 and 2018.

  • Between 2013 and 2018, more than 18,580 desertions from SEDENA. Desertions from SEMAR: 1,222 between 2015 and 2018.

  • Between December 2018 and October 2019, 569 desertionsfrom SEDENA and 54 desertions from SEMAR.

  • From 2006 to 2018, nearly six times as many armed civilians died in confrontations than members of the military. From 2007 to 2014, SEDENA reported 4,502 confrontations, resulting in the deaths of 3,907 “aggressors” and 494 “aggressors” wounded. From 2007 to 2019, SEMAR reported 400 confrontations, resulting in the deaths of 446 “presumed criminals” and 272 “presumed criminals” wounded. Of the 102 confrontations between 2007 to 2011, SEMAR reported no deaths and 253 wounded.

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U.S. AID
  • Total Merida Initiative appropriations, 2008-2020: $3.3 Billion (USD).

  • Security Aid to Mexico 2020: $108 million (USD). Requested for 2021: $43.5 million (USD).

  • $1,531,566,773 in direct commercial arms sales, 2008-2019.

  • $563,880,000 in Foreign Military Sales, 2008-2019.

 
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The Mexico Violence Resource Project is a collaborative effort housed at UC San Diego’s Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies

and supported by a partnership with the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.
 

Contact us at admin@mexicoviolence.org

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